Russia says oil flows to three European Union members have been halted.

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An alternative pipeline through the Adriatic Sea could be used to supply oil to all three countries, according to IHS Markit, a research firm. But it cautioned that the capacity reaching Hungary and Slovakia might not be enough to fully cover shortfalls if Russia fully cut off deliveries.

As of January, it estimated, Hungary, Slovakia and the Czech Republic were receiving about 250,000 barrels a day from Russia through the pipeline.

Germany and Poland, at the northern end of the pipeline, were not affected by the interruption, Transneft said.

The price of Brent crude oil, the international benchmark, rose on the news of the pipeline shutdown but later fell back, trading 0.5 percent lower, at just over $96 per barrel.

Since invading Ukraine in February, President Vladimir V. Putin of Russia has shown that he is willing to use his control of the energy spigot as leverage over Europe. He has also demonstrated his knack for keeping his adversaries off-balance by sending mixed signals and trying to play Western allies against one another.

In the spring, Russia cut deliveries of natural gas to several European countries, starting with Bulgaria and Poland and then adding Finland. In June, on the day that the leaders of France, Germany and Italy visited Kyiv, those countries reported a shortfall of deliveries of Russian gas, as did Austria and the Czech Republic.

Flows through the Nord Stream 1 pipeline to Germany, Europe’s main consumer of Russian gas, were slashed by 60 percent in June and then by 80 percent in July. Moscow blamed the disruption on a pipeline component that was being refurbished by a German company at a factory in Canada, causing tensions between Ottawa and Berlin.

Benjamin Novak and Monika Pronczuk contributed reporting.

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